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Personalized essays for college students from all faculties

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What Gauge Size Comes After 4/0 Electrical Wire?

AWG is an acronym for American Wire Gauge which can get a little bit confusing when gauges get larger than 1 AWG. First of all, as the numbers get smaller the amount of copper gets larger and the more power the cable can handle in terms of amperage. Once the sizes get as big as 1 AWG it moves on to 0 AWG or 1/0, then 00 or 2/0, then 000 or 3/0 and finally 0000 or 4/0. Anything larger than 4/0 will be identified in the industry as MCM, or 鎼昲ousand circular mils?

THHN wire and welding cable are two common items in the field that are manufactured regularly in 250 MCM, 350 MCM and 500 MCM. THHN wire sometimes gets as large as 1000 MCM for larger applications. Once into the MCM gauge sizes it actually gets easier to understand if you鎶甧 an electrician because it鎶?the actual size, or outer diameter, of the copper portion of the wire. Common gauge sizes such as 4 AWG would have to be roblox cheats tool broken down into the amount of circular mils with most engineers involved in the manufacturing process of electrical wire and cable.

Remember that MCM sizes compared to AWG sizes aren鎶?different kinds of electrical wire. They are merely ways to identify the amount of copper and that鎶?it. Identifying roblox hack cheats tool the amount of copper will determine the amount of power that can be sent through it for a particular application. Any insulation over the copper will be added to directly help protect the copper from the environment it will be placed in. That might include temperature changes, voltage and weather conditions that could impact the copper if the insulation was penetrated.

THHN wire is a common type of 4/0 and 250 MCM wire. Those two sizes are in order of size. As THHN electrical wires they both have a PVC insulation with a nylon coating. That specific insulation was engineered and tested to be used indoors, outdoors and in conduit for typical house and building applications.

Welding cable is another common type of 4/0 and 250 MCM electrical wire. It鎶?designed and manufactured with more flexible copper strands and tough rubber insulation for flexibility and daily impact in its particular field. A welding cable is more commonly touched, coiled and uncoiled by the operator while THHN wire is installed and never touched again until there鎶?a problem. Therefore, added protection, such as rubber insulation, will help protect a welding cable for its day to day wear and tear.

Speak to your supplier about the type of insulation you need and speak to your electrician about the size of copper you need. Always remember that those are completely different questions to ask!

What Exactly Is Dealer Invoice?

My first answer to that would be?who really knows? It鎶?a very elusive term thrown around by about all the car manufacturers?and car dealer鎶?marketing departments. You know after many years in the business, I鎶?not sure I could tell you precisely what true dealer invoice or what is termed 鎱竐ad cost?is on any particular vehicle. I鎶?sure the owner or the ownership group could somehow calculate this elusive dollar figure but most of us humans will continue to search for the ever elusive animal we refer to as dealer invoice.

To say this term is a bit misunderstood is a rather large understatement. Maybe that鎶?why it works so good for click this website the folks in the marketing department. Many potential car buyers assume that what they uncover on the internet is the car dealer鎶?invoice price. Well, not really. It鎶?certainly one heck of a lot closer than checking the MSRP of a give vehicle, but it probably isn鎶?going to be 鎱竐ad cost?

You hear it all the time. In fact right here where I鎶?at there is a local dealer that says all you鎶 ever pay is $50 over factory dealer cost; and they have been selling cars this way since day one oh so many years ago. I guess it shouldn鎶? but it really baffles me how this works on the consumer. Just do the simple math; if this dealer sold 300 cars a month (about 10 cars a day!) times $50 over factory cost (the inference here is that you are paying $50 over what the dealer gets the car for) this dealer would be grossing $15,000 per month on new car sales. I can unequivocally tell you that this would never cut the mustard! Think about it $15,000 a month and this dealer hasn鎶?even paid rent, utilities, insurance, salaries, benefits, and on and on. So, $50 over factory invoice?not hardly.

So what is it then?this thing car dealers call cost or invoice? Well, it鎶?a bunch of numbers being added ?subtracted ?multiplied ?and divided before anyone knows the dead cost of the car for the dealer.

What鎶?a consumer to do?

Getting out on the internet and doing your homework is a very good start. The exercise of comparing the information you gather is a good one and is to your advantage if you want to start your negotiations at 鎱絥voice?price. Which, by the way, you NEVER negotiate from the sticker price down.

While doing your research on dealer invoice prices it鎶?important to make certain you are comparing exact features and option packages to one another. This will at least give you baseline comparisons with which to work. All car dealers receive different incentives from the manufacturer; factory to dealer ?marketing incentives ?dealer holdback, and on and on. The fact that much of this is not disclosed is why it is very difficult to come up with dead cost for the car dealer.

For instance, in the case of dealer hold back; the dealer doesn鎶?even get this money until after the car is actually sold.

There are other expenses that the dealer has that are applied to the overall cost of a particular car, including how long a particular car has been sitting on the lot. You see the dealership finances their inventory and as such pays interest on this financing so a car that has been sitting on the lot for some time has cost the dealer more than the ones that they are just unloading from the truck.

As you can see, there are too many variables to any particular car at any particular dealership to know exactly what the dealer has put into a car in terms of cost. However, as we talked earlier, doing your research on the 鎱絥voice share this site price?is a good place to start. Just don鎶?stop there thinking you have all you need and don鎶?need to do any further negotiating on the selling price.

Purchasing cars and negotiating is almost synonymous. Getting a good feel for the invoice price is just a starting point. Now it鎶?time to roll up your sleeves and work on getting the best possible price you can.

What Is A Bonded T1?

Understanding what a bonded T1 is, and what it brings to the table, is not as more information complicated as some people make it out to be. For T1 bandwidth specifically, your choices are fractional T1, T1, and bonded T1. In other words ? part of a T1, a full T1 line, or X number of T1s connected to deliver whatever bandwidth capacity you need met.

The benefit of a bonded T1 service is that it eliminates overtaxing of a single T1. If your required bandwidth is more than what a full T1 delivers ? but less than a DS3 line ? then a bonded T1 is a smart choice.
Bonded T1’s are basically 2 or more T1’s that are connected to make a fatter pipe. This does confuse a lot of people so let me try and explain with a few examples.

Lets assume you have 2 T1’s bonded together ?.

If you have to download a file from the web that is 300Mbits in size then it would take 100 seconds to down load that file (300Mbit file/3Mbits per second bandwidth). This is because the bonded T1’s appear to be one large pipe.

Taking the same example but now you have 2 unbonded T1’s.

You still have a total of 3Mbits per second bandwidth, however if you have to download one file that’s 300Mbits in size it will take 200 seconds. This is because you only have 1.5Mbits per second bandwidth available as the file cannot be split and sent down both T1’s at the same time. The other T1 is not used for this transfer but is available for other traffic.

If you had two 300Mbit files to download then it would take 200 seconds to download in either scenario.

Bonded T1’s only help if you transfer large data files and time is critical. If time is not an issue and the data transfer is not large then bonded T1’s won’t help much. In that case stick with a full T1 line or look at the availability of Business Ethernet. Please note tt some point you鎶 reach a point of diminishing return with a bonded T1 share this site solution. For both capacity and cost. If that is a concern than fractional or full DS3 bandwidth is a better option.

The key is to understand first what your typical use load will be. Also consider what your peak load parameters would look like. Then design your solution around those two analyzed scenarios.